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HERDIN Record #: 103096-19071810432541 Submitted: 18 July 2019 Modified: 18 July 2019


Allen Dave H. Cabigan,
Miggelo A. Carencia,
Shane Annika T. Daming,
Pauline Joy J. Rodriguez

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The foot has three arches; the medial longitudinal arch, lateral longitudinal arch and one anterior transverse arch. They are formed by the tarsal and metatarsal bones and supported by ligaments and tendons in the foot. (TeachMeSeries Ltd 2018). The medial longitudinal arch is made up of the calcaneus, navicular, talus, first three cuneiforms, and first, second, and three metatarsals. It is supported by the soft tissues of the spring ligament; plantar calcaneo navicular ligament, deltoid ligament, posterior tibial tendon, plantar aponeurosis, and flexor hallucis longus and brevis muscles. (Marc R. and Steve B. 2017) Loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot is the result of Pes Planus. It can be flexible or rigid and it results in relative flattening of the plantar surface. (Lowth 2016) A lexible pes planus is caused by tibialis posterior dysfunction, foot bone malformation, ligament loosening, Achilles tendon shortening, and foot muscle weakness (Huang et al, 1993; Leung et al, 1998; Murley et al, 2009).

These deformations lead to excessive pronation of the foot during weight bearing and cause plantar flexion and adduction of the talus bone and the valgus of the calcaneus bone (Pandey et al, 2013). Abnormal peripheral information from the foot affects muscle performance necessary for body posture and position control (Shumway-Cook and Horak, 1986) and stable maintenance on the base of support (Franco, 1987). Flexible flatfeet are much more common than rigid flatfeet. Flexible flatfeet may have very flexible joints throughout the foot and are often associated with a tight calf muscle. Rigid flatfeet are usually caused by a tarsal coalition, two or more bones joined together during development, usually in the"hindfoot" bones just below the ankle joint. (Gwyneth DV.2017) Flexible Pes planus describes a normal arch withoutbearing weight which disappears with weight bearing. Pes planus treatments are divided into surgical and conservative treatments. Conservative treatments include taping, orthosis, special shoes and foot muscle exercises. Among these treatments, foot muscle exerciss have been reported to reduce excessive pronation, strengthen the foot muscles, and improve foor funcions (Panichawit et al, 2015 and have the advantages of helping restructure the foot and being simple o perform (Jung et al, 2011; Lynn et al, 2012).

The researcher's come up with an idea of making a device that can address strengthening and stretching, thus RCDC Exerciser is created, it is a multipurpose deviice designed o cater the needs of rehabilitation, the range of the acivities that can be   given by the device can be adjusted to what the patients need, it can give upto 7 ankle and foot exercise in one device. It was designed to give alternative way of managing the functional impairments such as akle and foot injury or deformity. This device was designed for improving the medical longitudinal arch of the foot and it will allow for more functional way to handle patients with ankle and foot injury or deformity. This study was administered to determine the acceptability of the device for treating ankle and foot injuries. This study aims to get the advice accepted in addition to the rehabilitation  program of licensed physical therapist. It aims to prove that the device will be helpful to patients suffering from pes planus

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Department of Physical Therapy
Publication Date
March 2019
LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
UPH-Dr. Jose G. Tamayo Medical University/Medical Center PT338 Abstract Print Format
1. "ACE Physical Therapy & Sports Medicine Institute" Intrinsic Foot Muscle and Physical Therapy" , . Retrieved from:
2. Alessio, Bernasconi , Francois, Lintz , Francesco, Sadile . ""The role of arthroereisis of the subtalar joint for flatfoot in children and adult" 2017 November" , . Retrieved from: http://
3. Franco, AH . "Pes cavus and pes planus. Analyses and treatment. Phys Ther. 1987" 67(5): 688-694.PM,

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