Artificial procreation or fertilization are different technical procedures directed towards obtaining a human conception in a manner other than the sexual union of a man and a woman. It refers to the fertilization of an ovum in a test tube (in vitro fertilization or IVF) and artificial insemination (AI) through transfer into the woman's genital tracts of previously collected sperm.
The moral & ethical evaluation of ART focuses on the hyperovulation and innumerable fertilization with consequent freezing of actual destruction of "spare" embryos and the occasional sacrifice of implanted embryos for eugenic, economic & psychological reasons which render to man under domination over life & death of other human beings.
Three specific questions related to heterologous artificial fertilization will be raised; namely, 1) why must human procreation take place in marriage?, 2) does heterologous artificial procreation conform to the dignity of the couple and to the truth in marriage?, and 3) is surrogate mother hood morally licit? As regards homologous artificial fertilization, five issues will be discussed; namely, 1) what connection is required between procreation and the conjugal act? 2) is homologous IVF morally licit?, 3) how is homologous artificial insemination to be evaluated from the moral point of view?, 4) what moral criterion can be proposed with regard to medical intervention in human procreation?, and 5) how is suffering caused by infertility in marriage going to be addressed? (Author)