Background: The metabolic syndrome (Mets) is a constellation of interrelated risk factors that confer an increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. According to the definition of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP Ill), the metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when at least three of five risk factors are present, including an increased waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) elevation, low HDL cholesterol, high triglycerides, and hyperglycemia. The measurement of intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery is a method for monitoring the early stages of atherosclerosis, and its increase precedes the development of plaque on the arterial wall. A range of non invasive screenings tools may help reduce the morbidity and mortality of patients with syndrome because of early detection and monitoring of treatment. There is no local data that evaluates Filipino patients diagnosed with metabolic syndrome to their carotid intima media thickness.
Objectives: The objective of the study is to determine the association of the metabolic syndrome with carotid intima media thickness in Filipino patients seen at the Philippine Heart Center out-patient Department.
Methods: Cross Sectional study. There were 44 subjects enrolled in this study seen at the Philippine Heart Center out- patient department, 27 of which belongs to the metabolic syndrome group and 17 to the control groups. Individuals without any components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular events were considered as control subjects. The biochemical results (fasting blood sugar, high density lipoprotein, triglyceride) were retrieved from the medtrak or at the out- patient chart (most recent at least 6 months old biochemical test). They underwent ultrasound of the carotid artery measuring the intima media thickness at the vascular laboratory.
Data analysis: There was a significant difference between the carotid intima media thickness of the metabolic syndrome and control group ( P: value = 0.013 )using paired T- test analysis. The metabolic syndrome group had an increased intima media compared to non metabolic individuals Among the components of the metabolic syndrome only high density lipoprotein showed significant correlation with carotid intima media thickness (pvalue =0.028 metabolic and 0.038 control). There is an increased of intima media thickness with a decreased of high density lipoprotein value.
Conclusion: There is an increased of carotid intima media thickness among subjects with metabolic syndrome and low HDL.