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HERDIN Record #: NCR-PHC-16070115232991 Submitted: 01 July 2016 Modified: 14 July 2016

The association of exposure to second hand smoke and other social factors to tuberculosis in Filipino children.

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Background: Exposure to second hand smoke is a major health concern worldwide. It predisposes the exposed child to a gamut of respiratory infections, including tuberculosis.


Methods: This is a cross-sectional, analytic study done in three schools in the Philippines from October 2013-March 2014. Second hand smoke exposure, socioeconomic class and overcrowding status were asked. Tuberculin skin testing and chest x-ray were done on all patients. They were classified based on the Philippine Pediatric Society TB consensus to have TB exposure, TB infection or TB Disease.


Results: A total of 130 students qualified or inclusion in the study. Fifty-seven out of the 130 subjects (44%) reported exposure to second hand smoke. Males, middle socioeconomic class, overcrowding and public school students had more report of second hand smoke exposure. TB exposure and TB disease were seen with a higher prevalence among students exposed to second hand smoke but did not reach statistical significance. Belonging to the middle socioeconomic class was statistically significant (p=0.034) to predict TB infection. Overcrowding is a factor for all outcomes of tuberculosis.


Conclusion: There is a proportional percentage of Filipino children exposed to second hand smoke (44%). TB exposure and disease were more prevalent among those with second hand smoke exposure. Belonging to the middle socioeconomic class was considered significant (p= 0.034) in acquiring a TB infection. Overcrowding is a strong variable predisposing to tuberculosis.

Publication Type
Research Report
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Philippine Heart Center Medical Library PHC.R.010.12 Fulltext Print Format