Background: Nutritional Status greatly affects the patient. It plays an important part in the management of diseases especially among patients suffering from COPD and critically ill. Subjective Global Assessment is well validated screening tool for malnutrition. It has good correlation between subjective and objective measurements (convergent validity). It has also good predictive validity and interrater reproducibility. Patient is categorized as well nourished, moderate or suspected malnutrition and severe malnutrition. It is the aim of this study to determine the correlation of Nutritional Status using SGA on Pulmonary Function Parameters of newly diagnosed and already diagnosed COPD patients according to GOLD criteria seen at the Philippine Heart Center.
Methods: This is a Cross Sectional Study. Patients 40 years old and above diagnosed with COPD confirmed with Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) are included in the study. Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometric indices such as weight, height, Body Mass Index (BMI), Mid Arm Circumference (MAC) and Subjective Global Assessment. Nutritional status was correlated with pulmonary function parameters obtained by the patients included in the study. Data was described as mean ± standard deviation or frequency and percent distribution. The association of anthropometric parameter with pulmonary function was determined using Pearson correlation analysis. Analysis of variance was used to determine relationship of malnutrition and pulmonary function. A p-value of ≤ 0.050was considered significant.
Results: One hundred forty-five COPD patients participated in the study. Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) decreases the patient became malnourished. The difference proved to be significant (p=0.000). Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1) showed the same significant decrease as the patient became malnourished (p=0.000). The FEV1/FVC ratio diminished from a well nourished patient to c severely malnourished patient which proved to be likewise significant (p=0.000).Among the anthropometric measurements performed, weight and mid arm circumference have positive correlation with FEV1 (r= -0.199, p=0.016; r= 0.366, p=0.000) and FEV1/FVC ratio (r= 0.267, p =0.001; r=0.293, p=0.0001). BMI was noted to be positively correlated with FEV1/FVC ratio (r= 0.293, p=0.001). However, no correlation was noted on both leukocyte count and albumin with PFT parameters.
Conclusion: Nutritional Status assessed using Subjective Global Assessment correlates significantly with FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC ratio of COPD patients. Body weight, MAC and BMI were found to have positive correlation with PFT results of COPD patients. SGA, weight, MAC, BMI can be a gauge to monitor the severity of COPD without doing frequent PFT especially among difficult COPD patients.