Report an error   

Submitted: 19 October 2015 Modified: 29 January 2019
HERDIN Record #: R07-CDU-15101907221972

The potential of alugbati (basella alba) fruit and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarps as staining agent on bacteria.

Dardyl   . Alfornon,
Johanna Joy  . Bolivia,
Dimple Pearl  . Dakles,
Jhelyn  . Felecio,
Patricia Antonette  .  Merecido,
Bryan Kyle  . Penagunda,
Jolie Dawn  . Tejero,
Kristine  . Velarde

See More

The researchers decided to find an alternative stain which is less expensive and less hazardous to the health. The study utilized a randomized posttest only experimental control groups to determine the potential of Alugbati (Basella alba) fruit and Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarps extractives as substitute for Crystal Violet and Safranin in Gram staining technique. Ninety-five percent (95%) ethanol was used to extract juice from 200 grams of Mangosteen pericarps and 150 grams of Alugbati fruit. Eight slides were smeared with Staphylococcus aureus and eight slides were smeared with Escherichia coli. When using the Gram staining procedure, none of the slides were stained with Alugbati (Basella alba) as an alternative for Crystal Violet and Mangosteen pericarps (Garcinia mangostana) as alternative for Safranin. However, when extracts of Alugbati fruit and Mangosteen pericarps were used solely, it faintly stained both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.


The findings of the study were presented, analyzed and interpreted in this chapter in four (4) sections; the number of slides of Staphylococcus aureus stained with Alugbati fruit extractive as compared to Crystal Violet, the number of slides of Escherichia coli stained with Mangosteen pericarps extractive as compared to Safranin, a significant difference between the proportions of slides positive for staining of Staphylococcus aureus using Alugbati fruit extractive and Crystal Violet, a significant difference between the proportions of slides positive for staining of Escherichia coli using Mangosteen pericarps extractive and Safranin. No slides were stained with Alugbati fruit extractive and Mangosteen Pericarps extractive.


Based on the findings, Alugbati fruit extractive and Mangosteen pericarps did not have the potential as staining agents on bacteria. The researchers also recommend that modifications to the Gram staining technique should be considered when using alternative stains.

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Medical Technology
Publication Date
April 2015
LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors U4 P848al Fulltext Print Format
2. Arellano, . "Effectiveness of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen) Pericarp’s Crude Extract as an Alternative Hematoxylin Component in Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining Technique." Fatima University Research Journal. 5( (1)): . Retrieved from:[0]=7311&hc_location=ufi
3. (). Basella alba. . Retrieved from:
4. Bhagat, J . (2012, November 30). 19 Best Benefits of Mangosteen for Skin and Health. . . Retrieved from:
5. del Mundo, L . "The Feasibility of Basella rubra as a Biological Stain. Sophomore In Bato Balani. ). " 15((1)): 1995. Retrieved from:
6. Deshmukh, S , Gaikwad, D . "A review of taxonomy, pharmacology, ethnobotany, and phytochemistry of Basella alba (Basella ceae). ." Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 4( (1)): 153-165, . Retrieved from:
7. Enerva, L T.. (2005, November 30). Utilization of an Indigenous Dyestuff from Basella rubra (Alugbati) as Microbiological Stain.. . Retrieved from:
8. Forbes, B , Sahm, D , Weissfeld, A . . Bailey & Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology (12th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, Inc., 2007.
9. Gladwin, M , Trattler, B . Clinical Micrbiology made ridiculously simple, (3rd ed.) Medmaster Incorporated, 2011. . Retrieved from:
10. Lin, B , Lin, S , Hsieh, W , Ko, J , Liu, C , Chen, L , Chiou, R . (2009, November 30). Structural Identification and Bioactivities of Red Violet Pigments Present in Basella alba fruits. . . Retrieved from:
12. (). Material Safety Data Sheet Fisher Scientific. . Retrieved from:
13. Mortel, F . (). Methanolic Fruit Extract of Basella rubra: Organic Stain for Hematologic Blood Smear. . Retrieved from:
15. (). Philippine Medicinal Plants. . Retrieved from:
17. Radha, T , Mathew, L , Mathew, L . Horticulturre Science Series-3 Fruit Crops. New India Publishing Agency., 2007. . Retrieved from: http://
18. Rao, S . (). Practical Exercise: Gram staining technique.. . Retrieved from:
19. (). Safety Data Sheet. . Retrieved from: