Oligohydramnios is defined as an amniotic fluid volume less than 500 ml at term or a volume that is abnormally low for gestational age. It is believed to complicate 4-4.9% of pregnancies according to a retrospective study by Pazstor in 2014. Oligohydramnios is further subdivided into an amniotic fluid volume of less than three centimeters (severe oligohydramnios) and amniotic fluid volume of more than three to five centimeters (oligohydramnios).
Various studies were made associating oligohydramnios versus normal amniotic fluid in relation to the neonatal outcome. However, comparing the different level of severity of oligohydramnios has not been sufficiently demonstrated especially in this institution. Thus, the present study is an effort to determine the relationship between the level of severity of oligohydramnios among term parturient in relation to the mode of delivery and to the fetal outcome.
This study aims to determine the relationship between the levels of severity of oligohydramnios among term parturient admitted in Corazon Locsin Montelibano Memorial Regional Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014 to the mode of delivery and to the neonatal outcome. Specifically, the study aims to determine the incidence of oligohydramnios in terms of amniotic fluid index of 3.1 - 5.0 cms and amniotic fluid index of 0 - 3.0 cms; to identify the most common mode of delivery; to determine the neonatal outcomes in terms of the mode of delivery, birth weight, apgar scores, Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) admissions, neonatal death, gestational age, presence of infection, and length of hospital stay; and to determine whether there is a significant relationship that exists between the severity of oligohydramnios among term parturient and the above-mentioned variables.
This study revealed that oligohydramnios is common in this institution and if detected after 37 completed weeks of gestation is an indicator of poor neonatal outcome. This study suggests that a decrease in amniotic fluid volume is associated with increased risk of cesarean section, decreased apgar score especially in the first minute, and increased incidence of neonatal death.