Title: The Risk Factors in the Development of Low Back Pain among High School Students in Dasmarinas, Cavite from June-Sept 2010
Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine the associated risk factors in the development of low back pain among high school students of Dasmariñas, Cavite.
Study Design: The design is a cross-sectional analytical study conducted among various public and private high schools in Dasmariñas, Cavite during June to September 2010.
Review of Literature: Nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP) is a fairly frequent condition in children, whose pathophysiology remains unclear. Recent studies have revealed that back pain is quite common in this population, and is becoming a serious health concern, especially in adolescents, with many risk factors being implicated.
Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire based from the Fairbank questionnaire, was asked to randomly selected high school students from private and public schools in Dasmariñas, Cavite during June to September 2010. Questions concerning demographics, family history, mechanical and lifestyle factors and school-environmental factors were assessed.
Results: From a computed sample population of 300, a total of 421 respondents answered the questionnaire. The point prevalence of this study was noted to be 54.37%. A result much higher compared to most international studies.
From the 41 variables assessed, grouped into 4 categories, 16 were noted to be statistically significant in the bivariate analysis. The factors noted in this study are the year level, school type, gender, age, student's height, a family history of a parent suffering from LBP, exercise frequency, seating arrangement in class, neck twisting, trunk twisting or chair turning during class, height of the backrest of the chair, presence of lockers in school, type of bag, the strapping used and the pain noted during recess activities.
In the multiple logistic regression and the forward logistic regression analysis 4 variables were noted to be statistically significant. These are school, gender, family history of a parent suffering from LBP, and LBP noted during recess.
Conclusion: Despite various methodologies to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of low back pain in children, there is a consensus that LBP in children, particularly adolescents, is indeed prevalent and requires attention. The result of this study adds support to the current evidence which highlight the prevalence of low back pain among children even in our local setting and with it a number of associated risk factors.
Hopefully with this study, increased awareness of the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors could be emphasized. From which more research on interventional programs could be done to possibly decrease the morbidity of LBP in schoolchildren.
Key Words: non-specific low back pain (NSLBP), adolescent students, prevalence, risk factors